Power-to-X (PtX) is a broad term that covers a range of technologies that convert one form of energy into another. The most common application of PtX is in the electrical power sector, where PtX technologies are used to convert excess electricity into heat, hydrogen, or synthetic fuels. PtX technologies offer a way to store energy that would otherwise be lost as waste heat or unused capacity. When used in combination with renewable energy sources, PtX can help to balance the intermittent nature of renewables and provide dispatchable power on demand. PtX can also help to decarbonize the transportation sector by providing a way to produce low-carbon hydrogen or synthetic fuels from excess renewable electricity.
Some of the emerging trends in Power-To-X technology include the use of electrolysis to produce hydrogen from water, the use of fuel cells to generate electricity from hydrogen, and the use of thermal storage to store energy for use during periods of high demand.