A battery management system (BMS) is a system that manages a rechargeable battery (cell or battery pack), such as by controlling its charging and discharging. A BMS is often combined with a charger to form a complete battery system. A battery management system monitors the battery voltage, current, and temperature in order to protect the battery from operating outside its safe operating limits. The BMS may also provide cell balancing in order to equalize the charge among the cells in a battery pack.
Some of the emerging trends in battery management include the use of battery packs with multiple cells in series and/or parallel, the use of fuel cells as range extenders, and the use of microgrids to manage power distribution.