2D materials are a class of atomic-scale, flat materials that consist of a single layer of atoms. Graphene, a one-atom-thick layer of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, is the most well-known 2D material. 2D materials have a range of interesting physical and chemical properties that differ from those of bulk materials. For example, they are extremely strong and stiff, yet also very light and thin. They can be highly conductive or insulating, and they can be transparent or opaque. Additionally, 2D materials can be easily integrated into devices and systems, making them attractive for a variety of applications.
Some of the emerging trends in 2D materials include the use of graphene for energy storage, the use of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) for optoelectronics, and the use of black phosphorus for flexible electronics.